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Volume-2 Issue-1: Published on September 20, 2016
02
Volume-2 Issue-1: Published on September 20, 2016

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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-1, September 2016, ISSN: 2394-367X (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Surinder Kumar

Paper Title:

Module Allocation for Maximizing Reliability of Distributed Computing Systems using Dynamic Greedy Heuristic

Abstract:  This paper deals with the problem of module allocation (i.e., to which processor should each task of an application be assigned) in heterogeneous distributed computing systems with the goal of maximizing the system reliability. The module assignment problem for more than three processors is known to be NP-hard, and therefore satisfactory suboptimal solutions obtainable in an acceptable amount of time are generally sought. We propose a new intelligent technique based on dynamic module allocation which uses greedy search algorithm for this problem. Performance of the algorithm depends on number of modules, number of processors, and the ratio of average communication time to average computation time and module interaction density of application. The effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm is compared with recently proposed module allocation algorithms for maximizing system reliability available in literature.

Keywords:
Module assignment, Distributed computing, Reliability, Dynamic Greedy heuristic, Module interaction graph.


References:

1.      S Casavant, T., Kuhl, J.G.,1988. “A taxonomyof scheduling in general-purpose distributed computing systems”. IEEE Transaction on Software Engineering 14 (2), 141–154.
2.      Stone, H.S., 1977. “Multiprocessor scheduling with the aid of network flow algorithms”. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE 3 (1), 85–93.

3.      Ernst, A., Jiang, H., Krishnamoorthy, M., 2006. “Exact solutions to module allocation problems”. Management Science 52, 1634–1646.

4.      Chern, M.S., Chen, G.H., Liu, P., 1989. “An LC branch-and-bound algorithm for module assignment problem”. Information Processing Letters 32,61–71.

5.      Sinclair, J.B., 1987. “Efficient computation of optimal assignments for distributed modules”. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 4, 342–361.

6.      Tom, A.P., Murthy, C.S.R., 1999. “Optimal module allocation in distributed systems by graph matching and state space search”. Journal of Systems and Software 46 (1), 59–75.

7.      Chockalingam, T., Arun kumar, S., 1995. “Genetic algorithm based heuristics for the mapping problem”. Computer and Operations Research 22, 55–64.

8.      Hadj-Alouane, A.B.,Bean, J.C., Murty, K.G., 1999. “A hybrid genetic/optimization algorithm for a module allocation problem”. Journal of Scheduling 2,189–201.

9.      Hamam, Y., Hindi, K.S., 2000. “Assignment of program modules to processors: a simulated annealing approach”. European Journal of Operational Research 122, 509–513.

10.   Yin, P.Y., Yu,S.S., Wang, P.P., Wang, Y.T., 2006. “A hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimal module assignment in distributed systems”. Computer Standard and Interface 28, 441–450.

11.   Zou, D.X., Gao, L.Q., Li, S., Wu, J.H., Wang, X., 2010. “A novel global harmony search algorithm for module assignment problem”. Journal of Systems and Software 83 (10), 1678–1688.

12.   Jacobs, L.W., Briscoe, M.J., 1995. A local-search heuristic for large set-covering problems”. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly 42, 1129–1140.

13.   Marcher, E., Steinbeck, A., 2000.“An evolutionary algorithm for large scale set covering problems with application to airline crew scheduling”. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1803, 367–381.

14.   Pan, Q.K., Wang, L., Zhao, B.H., 2008. “An improved iterated greedy algorithm for the no-wait flow shop scheduling problem with make span criterion”. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 38, 778–786.

15.   Ruiz, R., Stützle, T., 2007. “A simple and effective iterated greedy algorithm for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem”. European Journal of Operational Research 177 (3), 2033–2049.

16.   Ying, K.C., Lin, S.W., Huang, C.Y., 2009. “Sequencing single-machine tardiness problems with sequence dependent setup times using an iterated greedy heuristic”. Expert Systems with Applications 36, 7087–7092.

17.   Dubois-Lactose, J., López-Ibá ╠ânez, M., Stutz, T. “A hybrid TP + PLS algorithm for bi-objective flow-shop scheduling problems”. Computers and Operations Research, in press.

18.   T.D. Braun, D. Hansen, R.F. Freund, H.J. Siegel, N. Beck, L.L. Boloni, M. Maheswaran, A.I. Reuther, J.P. Robertson, M.D. Theys, B. Yao, “A comparison of eleven static heuristics for mapping a class of independent modules onto heterogeneous distributed computing systems”, Journal Parallel and Distributed Compute. 61 (6) (2001) 81–837.

19.   G. Ritchie, J. Levine, “A hybrid ant algorithm for scheduling independent jobs in heterogeneous computing environments”, in: Proceedings of the 23rd Workshop of the UK Planning and Scheduling Special Interest Group, 2004.

20.   Qin-Ma Kang, Hong He, Hui-Min Song, Rong Deng. “Module allocation for maximizing reliability of distributed computing systems using honeybee mating optimization”. Original Research Article Journal of Systems and Software, Volume 83, Issue 11, November 2010, Pages 2165-2174.

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2.

Authors:

Kshetrimayum Raseshowri Devi, Nagulan Venugopal, Lal Bihari Singha

Paper Title:

Microscopic Features of Dominant Bladderworts of Northeast India

Abstract:   Utricularia bifida Sm. and Utricularia pubescens Sm. are the most dominant and widely distributed bladderworts in Northeast India. The bladders of these species show double-layered walls. The antennae in U. bifida were unicellular and uniseriate, whereas, the antennae of U. pubescens were numerous, long and multicellular forming a fringe. The digestive glands were either bifid with two arms in U. bifida or quadrifid with four arms in the case of U. pubescens which bear short single-celled stalk. The stalk cells represent the basal portion of the arms or the terminal cells abutted from their respective sub-conical shaped pedestal cells. The wall partition between the pedestal and the basal portion of the stalk bear several finger-like projections of transfer cell type. The walls of pedestal, stalk and terminal arm cells were clearly differentiated into three layers. The outermost cuticle layer of pedestal cell was thick, which extended till the base of the terminal or arm cell. The middle layer was highly impregnated with opaque materials and fibrils. The innermost layer was not impregnated with variously shaped electron translucent numerous vacuoles filled with granules. The pedestal and basal cells were interconnected with plasmodesmata.

Keywords:
 Utricularia, Ultrastructure, Digestive gland, Vacuole, Pedestal cell


References:

1.      Abraham V and Subramanyam K (1965): Studies on the seeds of various taxa of Utricularia occurring in West Bengal. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Vol 62B, pp- 97-102.
2.      Bonnett HT (1968): The root epidermis: fine structure and function. J. Cell Biology, Vol 37, pp-199-205.

3.      Cheema GK, Vijayaraghavan MR and Kaur I (1992): A developmental and Histochemical Study of the Bladder of Utricularia stellaris. Aquatic Botany, Vol 43, pp-267-281.

4.      Darwin C (1875): Insectivorous Plants, Murray, London. Fahn A (1979): Secretory tissues in plants. Academic Press, London. Farooq H (1964): Studies in Lentibulariaceae. I. The embryology of Utricularia stellaris Linn.f. var. inflexa Clarke. Proc. Nst. Sci. India, Vol 30B, pp-263-299.

5.      Fineran BA and Lee MSL (1974a): Transfer cells in traps of the carnivorous plant Utricularia monanthos. J. Ultrastruc. Res., Vol48, pp-162-166.

6.      Fineran BA and Lee MSL (1974b): Ultrastructure of glandular hairs in traps of Utricularia monanthos. In: 8th Int. Congress Electron Microscopy Vol.2, The Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia, pp-600- 601.

7.      Fineran BA and LEE MSL (1975): Organization of quadrifid and bifid hairs in the trap of Utricularia monanthos. Protoplasma, Vol 84, pp-43-70.

8.      Fineran BA and LEE MSL (1980): Organization of mature external glands on the trap and other organs of the bladderwort Utricularia monanthos. Protoplasma, Vol 103, pp-17-34.

9.      Friday LE (1991): The size and shape of traps of Utricularia vulgaris L. Functional Ecology, Vol 5, pp-602-607.

10.   Gunning BES (1977): Transfer cells and their roles in transport of solutes in plants. Sci. Prog., Oxf. Vol 64, pp-539-568.

11.   Janarthanam MK and Henry AN (1992): Bladderworts of India. Bot. Surv. India, Govt. of India, Southern circle Coimbatore, India.

12.   Kristen U (1974): Feinstruktur und Entwicklung der nusseren Fangblasendrusea von Utricularia minor L. Cytobiologei, Vol 9, pp-21-330. Pate JS and Gunning BES (1972): Transfer cells. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol., Vol 23, pp-173-196.

13.   Plachno BA and Jankun A (2004): Transfer cell wall architecture in secretory hairs of Utricularia intermedia traps. Acta Biologia Cracoviensia Series Botanica, Vol 46, pp-193-200.

14.   Plachno BA, Jankun A and Faber J (2005a): Development of the wall labyrinth in pavement epithelium hairs of some Utricularia species. Acta Biologia Cracoviensia Series Botanica, Vol 47(1), pp-109-113.

15.   Plachno BJ, Adamus K, Faber J and Kozlowski J (2005b): Feeding behaviour of carnivorous Genlisea plants in the laboratory. Acta Botanica Gallica, Vol 152, pp-159-164.

16.   Robards AW, Jackson SM, Clarkson DT and Sanderson J (1973): The structure of barley roots in relation to the transport of ions into the stele. Protoplasma, Vol 77, pp-291-311.

17.   Sasago A and Sibaoka T (1985): Water extrusion in trap bladders of Uricularia vulgaris. II. A possible mechanism of water outflow. Bot. Mag., Tokyo, Vol 98, pp-113-124.

18.   Sorenson DR and Jackson WT (1968): The utilization of paramecia by carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba. Planta, Vol 83, pp-166-170.
19.   Taylor P (1964): The genus Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae) in Africa and Madagascar, Kew Bull., Vol 18, pp-1-245.

20.   Taylor P (1989): The genus Utricularia- a taxonomic monograph. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 14.

21.   Vintejoux C (1974): Ultrastructure and cytochemical observations on the digestive glands of Utricularia neglecta L. (Lentibulariaceae). Distribution of protease and acid phosphatase activities. Portugaliac Acta Biologica Series A, Vol 14, pp-463-474.


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3.

Authors:

Shiri T, Makota T

Paper Title:

Status of Biogas Technology in Swaziland: Challenges and Opportunities

Abstract: This paper serves to investigate the status of biogas energy including challenges and opportunities in the Kingdom of Swaziland. Increasing regional energy demand coupled with increased climatic challenges against depleting fossil fuels has seen a number of countries turning to renewable sources of energy to augment the current supply.  These include solar, wind power, biomass, geo-thermal and hydro electric power. Swaziland has adopted some of these renewable energy interventions to meet its own energy needs and curb climatic issues. During the study period, it was discovered that there are less than twenty biodigesters across sectors at national level. Despite a strong biomass base, positive regional experiences and favourable climatic factors, the growth of biogas technology industry remains partially stagnant primarily due to shortage of local skilled, experienced project developers and weak policy emphasis. This paper recommends the relevant stakeholders in the renewable energy sector to establish a national biogas programme by exhausting regional experiences. This will help to immediately reduce over reliance on wood fuel, paraffin and LPG, improve energy security, reduces electricity costs to the consumer and lower the energy import bill.

Keywords:
  Biogas, challenges, opportunities, status


References:

1.      Rajendran.K, Aslanzadeh, S, Taherzadeh. J.M. (2012, August).Household Biogas Digesters- A review. Energies.5, 2911-2942. Viewed 12 September 2016, Available: http://www. mdpi.com/journal/energies
2.      International Renewable Energy Agency (2014), Swaziland Renewables Readiness Assessment. Available: http://www. irena.org/Publications/ReportsPaper2014New

3.      Energy Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (2014), Swaziland Households Energy Access, Mbabane.

4.      Swaziland Ministry of Agriculture (2015),DVLS Livestock Census Summary 2015,viewed 29 October 2016, Available http://www.gov.sz  catid = 80:agriculture

5.      Southern African Power Pool (2015), SAPP Annual Report 2015, viewed 13 September 2016, http://www.sapp.co.zw/areports.html

6.      Swaziland Electricity Company ( 2016), Redesigning the Future of Energy, 2014-2015 Annual Report, Swaziland Electricity Company, Mbabane. Viewed, 27 August 2016. Available: http://www.sec.co.sz>annual reports>20142015

7.      Iea-biogas. Available online: http://www.iea-biogas.net (accessed on 25 March 2016).

8.      Jiang, X.; Sommer, S.G.; Christensen, K.V. A review of the biogas industry in China. Energy Policy (2011), 39, 6073–6081.

9.      NDRC. Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in China; National Development and Reform Commission: Beijing, China, 2007

10.   Khoiyangbam, R.S. Environmental implications of biomethanation in conventional biogas plants. Iran. J. Energy Environ. (2011), 2, 181–187.

11.   Sarkar, A.N. Research and development work in biogas technology. J. Sci. Ind. Res.(1982), 41, 279–291.

12.   Renwick, M.,.  Subedi  P. S. and Hutton,  G. “Cost Benefits Analysis of National and Regional Integrated Biogas and Sanitation Program in Sub-Saharan-Africa,” WINROCK International Draft Final Report, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007.
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biogas-subsaharanafrica-en.pdf

13.   Mulinda..C, Hu. Q,Pan.K  , (2013, October). Dissemination and Problems of African Biogas Technology. Energy and Power Engineering.5, 506-512. Viewed 29 October 2016, Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/epe.2013.58055

14.   Mshandete. A.M and Parawira W, (2009, January). Biogas technology research in selected Sub Saharan African countries-A review. African Journal of Biotechnology.Vol 8(2), 116-125. Viewed 11 August 2016, Available: online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB

15.   Kingdom of Swaziland ( 2014), Sustainable Energy for All Country Action Plan Final report,Mbabane

16.   GTZ/GIZ. (1999). Biogas digest: Volume 2: Biogas application and product development. GTZ.

17.   Rowse, L.E. (2011). Design of Small Scale Anaerobic Digesters for Application in Rural Developing Countries .Viewed 12July 2016. Available: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd

18.   Parawira, W. (2004). Anaerobic Treatment of Agricultural Residues and Wastewater :Application of High-Rate Reactors, Lund, viewed 6 November 2016, https://lup.lub.lu.se>search>publication

19.   Bowen, A.D (1975), ‘ The location of Swaziland and the effects of its position’, in Certificate Geography of Swaziland (ed.),Longman Group UK Limited, England.,pp. 1-13

20.   Bin, C. The current status of agricultural geothermal utilization in China. Biomass (1989), 20, 69–76

21.   Rakotojaona, L. (2013), Enea consulting, Paris, viewed on  11 August 2016. Available: http://www.enea.consulting.com>2015/05

22.   Gladstone .N. (n.d). Biogas Action Sheet 66.Viewed 31 October 2016.Available: http:// www.docplayer.net/20835907-Biogas-action-sheet-66.html

23.   Central Statistical Office (2010),2007 Population and Housing Census, Volume 6, Mbabane

24.   Seers, D. (1969), Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom, viewed 9 November 2016. Available: http://www.ids.ac.uk

25.   World Health Organization (1979). Environmental health criteria 8: Sulfur oxides and suspended particulate matter. Geneva, Switzerland

26.   Mihelcic, J. R., Fry, L. M., Myre, E. A., Phillips, L. D., & Barkdoll, B. D. (2009). Field guide to environmental engineering for development workers: Water, sanitation, and indoor air. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

27.   Smith, K. R. (1993). Fuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The situation in developing countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 18, 529-566.

28.   World Health Organization. (2011). Health statistics and health information systems: Global burden of disease. Viewed 7 November 2016

29.   Gautam, R.; Baral, S.; Herat, S. Biogas as a sustainable energy source in Nepal: Present status and future challenges. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (2009), 13, 248–252.

30.   Lansing, S.; Botero, R.B.; Martin, J.F. Waste treatment and biogas quality in small-scale agricultural digesters. Bioresour. Technol. (2008), 99, 5881–5890.

31.   Garfí, M.; Gelman, P.; Comas, J.; Carrasco, W.; Ferrer, I. Agricultural reuse of the digestate from low-cost tubular digesters in rural Andean communities. Waste Manag. (Oxf.) (2011), 31, 2584–2589.

32.   African Development Bank (2011), Kingdom of Swaziland Country Strategy Paper, 2009-2013 Mid-Term Review, viewed 2 November 2016,Available:http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/2009-2013-Swaziland-Country-Strategy-Paper-mid-term-review-25830/

33.   Katuwal, H., Bohara, A. K. (2009). Biogas: A promising renewable technology and its impact on rural households in Nepal. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews,13(9), 2668-2674. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2009.05.002.


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4.

Authors:

Jusman, Bambang Setiaji, Triyono, Akhmad Syoufian

Paper Title:

Characterization Physicochemical of Emulsion Solid Cooking Oil from Coconut Oil

Abstract: Research of characterization physicochemical emulsion products of solid cooking oil has been performed. The measurement using analysis parameter of water content, free fatty acids, peroxide value, and hardness test.  Method of used water content  (AOAC,1995), free fatty acids (AOCS Official Method Ca 5a-40 1993), and peroxide value (AOCS Official Method Cd 8-53 1993), and hardness test using universal machine testing. The characterization result of emulsion products of solid cooking oil toward the water content in the range of 0.04-0.09%, free fatty acids from 0.28 to 0.49%, and peroxide value in the range 0.61 to 0.74 mg O2/100 g. And the result of hardness test solid cooking oil emulsion product is in the range from 8.4942 to 15.7444 gf/cm2. Thus the solid cooking oil products produced meet the criteria of margarine and shortening.

Keywords:
coconut oil, solid cooking oil, emulsion, and physicochemical


References:

1.      M. Marina,Y. B. Che Man, S. A. H. Nazimah, I. Amin,” Chemical properties of virgin coconut oil,”  J Am Oil Chem Soc 2009, 86:301–307.
2.      McClements, D. J., 1999, Food emulsions: Principles, practice, and techniques. Boca Raton, CRC Press.

3.      Dickinson, E., & McClements, D. J. (1995). Advances in food colloids. London, UK: Chapman and Hall.

4.      Boode, K., Walstra, P., & Degrootmostert, A. E. A. (1993). Partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions 2: Influence of the properties of the fat. Colloids and Surfaces A—Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 81(1), 139–151.

5.      Walstra, P. (1996). Emulsion stability. (Chapter 1). In P. Becher (Ed.), Encyclopedia of emulsion technology, Vol. 4. New York: Marcel Dekker.

6.      Friberg, S. E., & Larsson, K. (1997). Food emulsions. New York: Marcel Dekker.

7.      Ketaren, S. 1986. Oils and Fats Food Technology . UI Press, Jakarta.

8.      Haighton AJ (1959) J Am Oil Chem Soc 36:345 doi:10.1007/BF02640051

9.      AOCS., 1993, Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 5th Ed. American Oil Chemist’s Society Champaign, IL, U.S.A.


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